A program that focuses on the application of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics to the study of biomolecular structures, functions, and processes specific to plants and plant substances. Includes instruction in the biochemistry of plant cells, nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, molecular cytostructures, photosynthesis, plant molecular genetics, and the molecular biology of plant diseases.
Federal CIP Code Definitions
BIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES.
Plant Molecular Biology.
Botany/Plant Biology, Other.
Any instructional program in botany/plant biology not listed above.
Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure, function, and regulation of cells as individual units and as components of larger systems. Includes instruction in cell chemistry, cellular dynamics, cellular replication and reproduction, cell anatomy, membrane function, organelles, cell adhesion and extracellular matrices, cell dynamics and motility, meiosis and mytosis, signal transduction, regulation, recognition and defense mechanisms, the cell cycle, cell metabolism and respiration, gene expression, and studies of cell types and characteristics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of organ systems, tissue structures, and whole bodies together with their cellular and structural components and dynamics. Includes instruction in cell biology and histology, structural biology, molecular mechanics, regional and gross anatomy, embryology, neuroanatomy, endocrinology and secretory dynamics, and applications to such topics as aging and disease conditions.
Developmental Biology and Embryology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of embryology, development, and growth of animals and human beings. Includes instruction in fertilization, oogenesis, histogenesis, gastrulation, and cell differentiation; embryological development including organ and pattern formation, morphogenesis, gene regulation, cell lineage, and fate maps; disease and defect studies; transgenic and evolutionary models of growth and development; and applications to specific organisms and phyla.
Moved from 26.0405 to 26.1502
Cell/Cellular and Molecular Biology.
An integrated, combined program that focuses on the scientific study of cells, cellular systems, and the molecular basis of cell structure and function. Includes instruction in cell biology, cell chemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, and structural biology.
Cell Biology and Anatomy.
An integrated, combined program that focuses on the scientific study of cell structure, function, and dynamics within the context of organismic, regional, and gross anatomical systems. Includes instruction in molecular biology, cell biology and histology, structural biology, anatomy, embryology, endocrinology, and applications to specific systems, diseases, defects, and processes.
Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Other.
Any instructional program in cell/cellular biology and anatomical sciences not listed above.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of unicellular organisms and colonies, and subcellular genetic matter and their ecological interactions with human beings and other life. Includes instruction in microbial genetics, cell biology, cell physiology, virology, pathogenic microbiology, environmental microbiology, immunology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and laboratory methods including microscopy.
Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of pathogenic bacteria that are significant factors in causing or facilitating human disease. Includes instruction in the pathogenesis of bacterial diseases, bacterial genetics and physiology, bacterial anatomy and structure, antigens, bacterial reproduction, bacterial adhesion, phagocytes, and the identification of new or mutated bacteria and bacterial agents.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of subcellular pieces of genetic material, called viruses, that inhabit living cells in parasitical relationships and their role in disease. Includes instruction in virus taxonomy and systematics, viral structures, viral genetics, prions, virus/host cell interaction, viral pathogenesis, and applications to specific topics such as cancer biology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of biological organisms living in ecologically exploitative and competitive relationships with host organisms, and the role of parasites in causing injury, disease, and environmental damage. Includes instruction in vector biology, immunoparasitology, medical parasitology, molecular biology of parasitical associations, veterinary and comparative parasitology, chemotherapeutics, and ecological and systematic parasitology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of fungi, lichenous plants, eukaryotic microorganisms, myxomycetes, and plasmodiophorales and their relationship to diseases in higher plants, animals, and human beings as well as to pharmacologically useful products. Includes instruction in cell and molecular biology; histopathology; fungal growth and behavior; environmental mycology; antifungal sensitivity; mycoses; pathogens and pathogenesis; pharmacological properties; and computer and laboratory research methods.
A program that focuses on scientific study of the biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of disease, host-pathogen interactions, and host response to disease. Includes instruction in antigen and antibody structure and function, effector mechanisms, receptors, histocompatibility, host-pathogen recognition, disease modeling, autoimmune systems, antibody formation, cytotoxic responses, regulation of immune response, virulence determinants, intercellular signaling, immunosuppression, immunotherapy, immunogenetics, disease markers, transplantation, antibody humanization, and microbial pathogenesis.
Microbiology and Immunology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the microorganisms that cause disease and the host immune response to them. Includes instruction in microbiology, microbial genetics, molecular virology, pathogenic bacteriology, disease mechanisms, immunology, immunogenetics, autoimmunity, and bioinformatics.
Microbiological Sciences and Immunology, Other.
Any instructional program in the microbiological sciences and immunology not listed above.
A general program that focuses on the scientific study of the biology of animal species and phyla, with reference to their molecular and cellular systems, anatomy, physiology, and behavior. Includes instruction in molecular and cell biology, microbiology, anatomy and physiology, ecology and behavior, evolutionary biology, and applications to specific species and phyla.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of insect species and populations in respect of their life cycles, morphology, genetics, physiology, ecology, taxonomy, population dynamics, and environmental and economic impacts. Includes instruction in applicable biological and physical sciences as well as insect toxicology and the biochemical control of insect populations.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of function, morphology, regulation, and intercellular communications and dynamics within vertebrate and invertebrate in animal species, with comparative applications to homo sapiens and its relatives and antecedents. Includes instruction in reproduction, growth, lactation, digestion, performance, behavioral adaptation, sensory perception, motor action, phylogenetics, biotic and abiotic function, membrane biology, and related aspects of biochemistry and biophysics.
Animal Behavior and Ethology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the psychological and neurological bases of animal sensation, perception, cognition, behavior, and behavioral interactions within and outside the species. Includes instruction in ethology, behavioral neuroscience, neurobiology, behavioral evolution, cognition and sensory perception, motivators, learning and instinct, hormonal controls, reproductive and developmental biology, community ecology, functional behavior, and applications to specific behaviors and patterns as well as to specific phyla and species.
A program that focuses on the application of biological principles to the study of vertebrate wildlife, wildlife habitats, and related ecosystems in remote and urban areas. Includes instruction in animal ecology; adaptational biology; urban ecosystems; natural and artificial habitat management; limnology; wildlife pathology; and vertebrate zoological specializations such as mammalogy, herpetology, ichthyology, ornithology, and others.
Zoology/Animal Biology, Other.
Any instructional program in zoology/animal biology not listed above.
A general program that focuses on the scientific study of the organization, recombination, function, regulation, and transmission of heritable information in biological organisms at all levels of complexity. Includes instruction in Mendelian genetics, mechanisms of gene regulation, chromosome structure and replication, epigenetic phenomena, DNA repair and recombination, sex determination, genetic interactions between genomes, and molecular evolution.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of genetic structures and mechanisms of organisms, including bacteria, phages, and viruses. Includes instruction in the replication, expression, transfer, structure, maintenance, and stability of heritable information in DNA, RNA, and proteins; the regulation of these processes; and neurogenetics.
Microbial and Eukaryotic Genetics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetics of viruses, infectious agents, organelles, nuclear genomes, eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotic organisms. Includes instruction in molecular genetics and evolution, parasitic and symbiotic interaction at the genetic level, epigenetic phenomena, microbial interactions, and genomics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetics of multicellular animal life forms from the experimental, comparative, and clinical (veterinary and medical) viewpoints. Includes instruction in molecular genetics, gene expression, gene regulation, genomics, epigenetic phenomena, DNA recombination and repair, genetic interactions at the microbial and higher levels, and molecular evolution.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetics of multicellular plants and fungi as related to botanical research as well as to applications in comparative genetics, ecology and evolutionary studies, clinical studies, and industrial research. Includes instruction in molecular genetics, gene expression, gene regulation, genomics, epigenetic phenomena, DNA recombination and repair, genetic interactions at the microbial and higher levels, and molecular evolution.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of human genetics from the standpoint of medical applications such as clinical diagnosis, genetic engineering and therapy, transplantation, and the study of genetic diseases and disabilities and their defense. Includes instruction in human molecular genetics; genetic factors causing disease; changes in gene expression during development, differentiation, and pathogenesis; recombinant DNA; gene therapy; clinical genetics; genetic epidemiology; immunogenetics; cytogenetics; and genetics of specific disorders and diseases.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of whole genome sequences and patterns of gene expression. Includes instruction in molecular and cellular biology, genetics, protein technologies, genomic sciences and techniques, bioinformatics, and scientific and research ethics.
Any instructional program in genetics not listed above.
A general program that focuses on the scientific study of the functional dynamics, morphology, and biochemical and biophysical communications within organisms and between living systems at all levels of complexity and integration. Includes instruction in reproduction, growth, hormonal action, vascular function, respiration, digestion, sensory perception and processing, sensorimotor integration, signal encoding and conveyance, homeostasis, physical function and malfunction, evolutionary physiology, and disease processes.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of dynamic interactive processes and biochemical communications at the subcellular level. Includes instruction in ion channels and transporters, molecular signaling pathways, endocrine control and regulation, genetic information transfer, homeostasis and molecular control systems, electrophysiology and sensory mechanisms, protein synthesis, and applicable research methods and technologies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of physiological processes operating within and among cells, and intracellular communication and behavior, in the context of larger systems and whole organisms. Includes instruction in cell and molecular biology, molecular physiology, cell cycle control, signal transduction, protein structure, membrane biochemistry and structure, ion channel physics, cell respiration and digestion, secretory functions, cell adhesion and communication, information encoding and decoding, and the relation of cell physiology to tissue, organ, and organismic functioning.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the composition, manufacture, and secretion of protein compounds by cells and glands and the role of endocrine substances in bodily processes. Includes instruction in protein chemistry, protein secretion, membrane biogenesis and transfer methods, cellular communication, gene and cell regulation, cytochemistry, fractionation, radioautography, and applications such as neuroendocrinology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of reproductive processes and biogenesis in animals and human beings. Includes instruction in reproductive ecology and behavior, reproductive system physiology, endocrinology, developmental biology, neuroendocrinology, evolution and types of reproductive systems, reproductive genetics, physiopathology of reproductive processes, and applications of molecular biology and biophysics to the study of reproductive physiology.
Neurobiology and Neurophysiology.
Moved from 26.0906 to 26.1503
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure and functioning of the heart, vascular system, and blood in animals and human beings and the disorders and diseases associated with the cardiovascular system. Includes instruction in cardiovascular physiology, blood physiology, vasculature, vascular metabolism, neural control of cardiovascular function, microvascular permeability and membrane transport, cardiac contraction mechanisms, homeostasis, and applications to topics such as arteriosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, vascular remodeling, transplantation, transfusion, and pacemakers and artificial organs.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the physiological processes involved in physical or motor activity, including sensorimotor interactions, response mechanisms, and the effects of injury, disease, and disability. Includes instruction in muscular and skeletal anatomy; molecular and cellular basis of muscle contraction; fuel utilization; neurophysiology of motor mechanics; systemic physiological responses (respiration, blood flow, endocrine secretions, and others); fatigue and exhaustion; muscle and body training; physiology of specific exercises and activities; physiology of injury; and the effects of disabilities and disease.
Vision Science/Physiological Optics.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of vision, visual processes, and related phenomena and clinical research and treatment modalities. Includes instruction in ocular anatomy and physiology, microbiology of the eye, electrophysiology, neurophysiology, corneal physiology, photochemistry, psychophysics, visual biophysics and motor systems, sensory mechanisms and photoreception, eye circulation and metabolism, geometric and physical optics, ocular development across the life span, visual stimuli and perception, color vision, eye motility, biometrics and measurement techniques, visual pathology, and environmental issues.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the expression, initiation, maintenance and progression of tissue injury and disease, including death, and the relationship of pathogenesis to fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms. Includes instruction in immunology, microbiology, gene expression, inflammation, cell injury, apoptosis, immunopathology, molecular markers of disease and toxins, neoplasia, growth regulation, and organ- and system-specific investigations.
Oncology and Cancer Biology.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of carcinogens; the onset of malignancy in cells, tissues, blood, and organs; the genetics of cancer; the anatomy and physiology of cancer cells; and the study of cancer behaviors and treatments. Includes instruction in gene expression; oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; viral genes and cancer proliferation; regulation of signal transduction; cancer proteins; hormonal and growth factors in cancer cells; tumor promotion, progression, and metastasis; carcinogen receptors and metabolism; carcinogen ecology; immunological targeting; and studies of genetic, chemical, radiologic and other treatment therapies.
Aerospace Physiology and Medicine.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the physiological processes involved in low and high-altitude flight and living in space and related low-pressure and low-gravity environments, including sensorimotor interactions, response mechanisms, and the effects of injury, disease, and disability. Includes instruction in anatomy, molecular and cellular basis of muscle contraction, fuel utilization, neurophysiology of motor mechanics, systemic physiological responses (respiration, blood flow, endocrine secretions, and others), fatigue and exhaustion, systemic environmental pathologies, muscle and body training, physiology of specific exercises and activities, physiology of injury, and the effects of disabilities and disease.
Physiology, Pathology, and Related Sciences, Other.
Any instructional program in physiology, pathology, and related sciences not listed above.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of drug interactions on biological systems and organisms and the sources, chemical properties, biological effects, and therapeutic uses of drugs. Includes instruction in pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, drug therapeutics, drug action, bodily responses to drug events, biochemical proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, cell biology, medicinal chemistry, and studies of specific drugs and drug interactions.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the biochemical and biophysical characteristics of drugs at the molecular level and their interaction with, and effects on, biological macromolecules and cellular structures and processes. Includes instruction in molecular biology and biophysics; pharmacology of signal transduction, transmitters, and protein synthesis and release; receptors, protein interaction and binding; drug discovery and recognition; molecular toxicology; drug design; pharmacodynamics; developmental genetics; and studies of therapeutic strategies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of drugs that modify the function of the brain and central nervous system, the effects of such drugs on health, disease, perception, motor action, and behavior; and the development of countermeasures and treatment therapies. Includes instruction in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavioral neuroscience, neurobiochemistry, neuropathology, the mechanisms of brain function, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, and studies of specific drugs and drug therapies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of poisons and other biohazards; their interactions with organisms and their food and respiratory systems; and their prevention, management, and counteraction. Includes instruction in toxicological biochemistry, toxic agents and transporters, toxin fate, toxicokinetics and metabolism, toxin classification, molecular toxic mechanisms, extracellular matrices and cell function, bacterial pathogenesis and mutagenesis, pathophysiology and apoptosis, cell stress and injury, studies of specific toxins, and studies of specific organ systems and physiological functions in relation to toxicological problems.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetic determinants of susceptibility to external pollutants and poisons; the interaction of toxic agents with biological systems at the molecular and cellular levels; and the development of countermeasures and treatments. Includes instruction in pharmacogenetics, biomolecular structure, gene expression and regulation, transgenic modeling, toxic events signaling, transcriptional activation, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, pulmonary toxicology, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, risk assessment, molecular dosimetry, and studies of specific toxins and treatment therapies.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the health effects associated with exposure to toxic chemicals and systems occurring in the natural, work, and living environments; the management of environmental toxins and toxicity; and the development of protections for humans, animals, and plants. Includes instruction in applied ecology; microbiology; toxin transport, fate, and degradation; dermal toxicology; reproductive and genetic toxicology; atmospheric and environmental chemistry; metals toxicology; environmental mutagens and biotransformation; nutrient interaction; chemical sensitivity, disorders, and disease; risk assessment; animal waste management; environmental health; and hazardous materials management.