A general program that focuses on the scientific principles that underlie the breeding, cultivation, and production of agricultural plants, and the production, processing, and distribution of agricultural plant products. Includes instruction in the plant sciences, crop cultivation and production, and agricultural and food products processing.
Federal CIP Code Definitions
AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURE OPERATIONS, AND RELATED SCIENCES.
Plant Sciences, General.
Agronomy and Crop Science.
A program that focuses on the chemical, physical, and biological relationships of crops and the soils nurturing them. Includes instruction in the growth and behavior of agricultural crops, the development of new plant varieties, and the scientific management of soils and nutrients for maximum plant nutrition, health, and productivity.
A program that focuses on the scientific principles related to the cultivation of garden and ornamental plants, including fruits, vegetables, flowers, and landscape and nursery crops. Includes instruction in specific types of plants, such as citrus; breeding horticultural varieties; physiology of horticultural species; and the scientific management of horticultural plant development and production through the life cycle.
Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Breeding.
A program that focuses on the application of genetics and genetic engineering to the improvement of agricultural plant health, the development of new plant varieties, and the selective improvement of agricultural plant populations. Includes instruction in genetics, genetic engineering, population genetics, agronomy, plant protection, and biotechnology.
Plant Protection and Integrated Pest Management.
A program that focuses on the application of scientific principles to the control of animal, insect and weed infestation of domesticated plant populations and other settings, including agricultural crops; the prevention/reduction of attendant economic loss; and the control of environmental pollution and degradation related to pest infestation and pest control measures. Includes instruction in entomology, applicable animal sciences, plant pathology and physiology, weed science, crop science, and environmental toxicology.
Range Science and Management.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of rangelands, arid regions, grasslands, and other areas of low productivity, as well as the principles of managing such resources for maximum benefit and environmental balance. Includes instruction in livestock management, wildlife biology, plant sciences, ecology, soil science, and hydrology.
Plant Sciences, Other.
Any instructional program in plant sciences not listed above.
Soil Science and Agronomy, General.
A program that generally focuses on the scientific classification of soils, soil properties, and their relationship to agricultural crops. Includes instruction in soil chemistry, soil physics, soil biology, soil fertility, morphogenesis, mineralogy, hydrology, agronomy, and soil conservation and management.
Soil Chemistry and Physics.
A program that focuses on the application of chemical and physical principles to research and analysis concerning the nature and properties of soils and the conservation and management of soils. Includes instruction in soil and fluid mechanics, mineralogy, sedimentology, thermodynamics, geomorphology, environmental systems, analytical methods, and organic and inorganic chemistry.
A program that focuses on application of microbiological theory and methods to the study of the organismic properties of soils, soil-plant and soil-animal interactions, and the biological components and effects of soil management strategies. Includes instruction in microbiology and related biological sciences, applicable animal and plant sciences, soil chemistry and physics as related to biological characteristics, and environmental science.
Soil Sciences, Other.
Any instructional program in the soil sciences not listed above.
Agriculture, Agriculture Operations, and Related Sciences, Other.
Any instructional program in agriculture, agricultural operations, and related sciences not listed above.
NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION.
Natural Resources/Conservation, General.
A general program that focuses on the studies and activities relating to the natural environment and its conservation, use, and improvement. Includes instruction in subjects such as climate, air, soil, water, land, fish and wildlife, and plant resources; in the basic principles of environmental science and natural resources management; and the recreational and economic uses of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
A program that focuses on environment-related issues using scientific, social scientific, or humanistic approaches or a combination. Includes instruction in the basic principles of ecology and environmental science and related subjects such as policy, politics, law, economics, social aspects, planning, pollution control, natural resources, and the interactions of human beings and nature.
A program that focuses on the application of biological, chemical, and physical principles to the study of the physical environment and the solution of environmental problems, including subjects such as abating or controlling environmental pollution and degradation; the interaction between human society and the natural environment; and natural resources management. Includes instruction in biology, chemistry, physics, geosciences, climatology, statistics, and mathematical modeling.
Natural Resources Conservation and Research, Other.
Any instructional program in natural resources conservation and research not listed above.
Natural Resources Management and Policy.
A program that prepares individuals to plan, develop, manage, and evaluate programs to protect and regulate natural habitats and renewable natural resources. Includes instruction in the principles of wildlife and conservation biology, environmental science, animal population surveying, natural resource economics, management techniques for various habitats, applicable law and policy, administrative and communications skills, and public relations.
Natural Resource Economics.
A program that focuses on the application of economic concepts and methods to the analysis of issues such as air and water pollution, land use planning, waste disposal, invasive species and pest control, conservation policies, and related environmental problems. Includes instruction in cost-benefit analysis, environmental impact assessment, evaluation and assessment of alternative resource management strategies, policy evaluation and monitoring, and descriptive and analytic tools for studying how environmental developments affect the economic system.
Water, Wetlands, and Marine Resources Management.
A program that prepares individuals to apply the principles of marine/aquatic biology, oceanography, natural resource economics, and natural resources management to the development, conservation, and management of freshwater and saltwater environments. Includes instruction in subjects such as wetlands, riverine, lacustrian, coastal, and oceanic water resources; water conservation and use; flood control; pollution control; water supply logistics; wastewater management; aquatic and marine ecology; aquatic and marine life conservation; and the economic and recreational uses of water resources.
Land Use Planning and Management/Development.
A program that focuses on how public and/or private land and associated resources can be preserved, developed, and used for maximum social, economic, and environmental benefit. Includes instruction in natural resources management, natural resource economics, public policy, regional and land use planning, environmental impact assessment, applicable law and regulations, government and politics, principles of business and real estate land use, statistical and analytical tools, computer applications, mapping and report preparation, site analysis, cost analysis, and communications skills.
Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism.
A program that prepares individuals to plan, develop, and manage tourism in a natural resource setting, with an emphasis on applying environmentally sound, culturally sensitive, and economically sustainable principles. Includes instruction in environmental studies; natural resource management and interpretation; tourism planning, management, and policies; public land use management and policies; communications; marketing; and public relations.
Natural Resources Law Enforcement and Protective Services.
A program that prepares individuals to enforce natural resource and environmental protection regulations and laws; and to perform emergency duties to protect human life, property and natural resources, including fire prevention and control measures, and emergency and rescue procedures. Includes instruction in natural and physical sciences, natural resource management, outdoor field skills, firearms and outdoor equipment and vehicle operation, evidence collection and environmental sampling and monitoring, natural resource legislation, environmental compliance techniques, patrol procedures, investigation and report writing, interpersonal skills and crisis intervention, community liaison, public safety, public education, and public relations. Note: this program was re-instated after being deleted from CIP 2000; previously, it was coded as 03.0203.
Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other.
Any instructional program in natural resources management and policy not listed above.
Fishing and Fisheries Sciences and Management.
A program that focuses on the scientific study of the husbandry and production of non-domesticated fish and shellfish populations for recreational and commercial purposes and the management of fishing and marine/aquatic product processing to ensure adequate conservation and efficient utilization. Includes instruction in the principles of marine/aquatic biology, freshwater and saltwater ecosystems, water resources, fishing production operations and management, fishing policy and regulation, and the management of recreational and commercial fishing activities.
A program that generally prepares individuals to manage and develop forest areas for economic, recreational, and ecological purposes. Includes instruction in forest-related sciences, mapping, statistics, harvesting and production technology, natural resources management and economics, wildlife sciences, administration, and public relations.
Forest Sciences and Biology.
A program that focuses on the application of one or more forest-related sciences to the study of environmental factors affecting forests and the growth and management of forest resources. Includes instruction in forest biology, forest hydrology, forest mensuration, silviculture, forest soils, water resources, environmental science, forest resources management, and wood science.
Forest Management/Forest Resources Management.
A program that prepares individuals to apply principles of forestry and natural resources management to the administration of forest lands and related resources. Includes instruction in silviculture, forest mensuration, forest protection, inventorying, biometrics, geographic information systems, remote sensing, photogrammetry, forest policy and economics, forest land use planning, fire protection and management, and related administrative skills.
A program that prepares individuals to apply the principles of forestry and related sciences to the development, care, and maintenance of individual trees and forested areas within or close to areas of dense human habitation. Includes instruction in urban environments; effects of pollution on tree species; environmental design and landscaping; urban pest infestation; urban forest management; and applicable policies and regulations.
Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology.
A program that focuses on the application of chemical, physical, and engineering principles to the analysis of the properties and behavior of wood and wood products and the development of processes for converting wood into paper and other products. Includes instruction in wood classification and testing, product development, manufacturing and processing technologies, and the design and development of related equipment and systems.
Forest Resources Production and Management.
A program that focuses on the application of forestry principles to the production, harvesting, and processing of forest resources and that prepares individuals to perform associated technical and managerial functions. Includes instruction in forest production and utilization, industrial forestry, agroforestry, transplantation, timber harvesting, selection and identification of trees, processing technologies and systems, equipment operations and maintenance, and related management skills.
A program that prepares individuals to assist foresters in the management and production of forest resources. Includes instruction in woods and field skills, tree identification, timber measurement, logging and timber harvesting, forest propagation and regeneration, forest fire-fighting, resource management, equipment operation and maintenance, record-keeping, sales and purchasing operations, and personnel supervision.
Any program in forestry not listed above.
Wildlife, Fish and Wildlands Science and Management.
A program that prepares individuals to conserve and manage wilderness areas and the flora, marine and aquatic life therein, and manage wildlife reservations and zoological/aquarium facilities for recreational, commercial, and ecological purposes. Includes instruction in wildlife biology, marine/aquatic biology, environmental science, freshwater and saltwater ecosystems, natural resources management and policy, outdoor recreation and parks management, the design and operation of natural and artificial wildlife habitats, applicable law and regulations, and related administrative and communications skills.
Natural Resources and Conservation, Other.
Any instructional program in natural resources and conservation not listed above.
ARCHITECTURE AND RELATED SERVICES.
A program that prepares individuals for the independent professional practice of architecture and to conduct research in various aspects of the field. Includes instruction in architectural design, history, and theory; building structures and environmental systems; project and site planning; construction; professional responsibilities and standards; and related cultural, social, economic, and environmental issues.
City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning.
A program that prepares individuals to apply principles of planning, analysis, and architecture to the development and improvement of urban areas and surrounding regions, and to function as professional planners. Includes instruction in principles of architecture; master plan development; service, communications, and transportation systems design; community and commercial development; zoning; land use planning; applied economics; policy analysis; applicable laws and regulations; and professional responsibilities and managerial duties.
A program that prepares individuals to design public and private spaces, indoor and outdoor, for leisure, recreational, commercial, and living purposes, and for professional practice as environmental designers and architects. Includes instruction in the design and planning of public and private open spaces and their relationship to buildings and other aspects of the built environment; facilities management; related aspects of interior design and architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning; and professional responsibilities and standards.
A program that prepares individuals to apply architectural principles in the design of structural interiors for living, recreational, and business purposes and to function as professional interior architects. Includes instruction in architecture, structural systems design, heating and cooling systems, occupational and safety standards, interior design, specific end-use applications, and professional responsibilities and standards.
A program that prepares individuals for the independent professional practice of landscape architecture and research in various aspects of the field. Includes instruction in geology and hydrology; soils, groundcovers, and horticultural elements; project and site planning; landscape design, history, and theory; environmental design; applicable law and regulations; and professional responsibilities and standards.
Architectural History and Criticism, General.
A general program that focuses on the aesthetic, technical, and social development of the built environment and the architectural profession from earliest times to the present. Includes instruction in the principles of architecture and related fields; art history; historiography of architecture; architectural theory and criticism; related aspects of the history of technology and social and economic history; and various period, cultural, and stylistic specializations.
A program that prepares individuals to assist architects in developing plans and related documentation and in performing architectural office services. Includes instruction in architectural drafting, computer-assisted drafting and design, construction methods and materials, environmental systems, building codes and standards, structural principles, cost estimation, planning documentation, visual communication skills, display production, and architectural office management.
Architectural and Building Sciences/Technology.
A program that focuses on the application of advanced technology to building design and construction, retrofitting existing buildings, and efficient operation of buildings, including lighting and daylight design, acoustics, solar design, building conservation, and energy-conscious design. Includes instruction in architecture, building technology, civil and structural engineering, mechanical engineering, environmental control systems, sustainability, and computer tools and applications.
Architectural Sciences and Technology, Other.
Any instructional program in architectural sciences and technology not listed above.
Real Estate Development.
A program that prepares individuals to create and redevelop housing, offices, retail centers, and industrial sites. Includes instruction in architectural design and construction, historic preservation, landscape architecture, urban planning and design, business, real estate and land use law, public policy, and engineering.
Architecture and Related Services, Other.
Any instructional program in architecture and related programs not listed above.
AREA, ETHNIC, CULTURAL, GENDER, AND GROUP STUDIES.
A program that focuses on the history, society, politics, culture, and economics of one or more of the peoples of the African Continent, usually with an emphasis on Africa south of the Sahara, and including the African diasporas overseas.
American/United States Studies/Civilization.
A program that focuses on the history, society, politics, culture, and economics of the United States and its Pre-Columbian and colonial predecessors, and including the flow of immigrants from other societies.
A program that focuses on the history, society, politics, culture, and economics of one or more of the peoples of the Asian Continent, including the study of the Asian diasporas overseas.
East Asian Studies.
A program that focuses on the history, society, politics, culture, and economics of one or more of the peoples of East Asia, defined as including China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, Tibet, related borderlands and island groups, and including the study of the East Asian diasporas overseas.
Russian, Central European, East European and Eurasian Studies.
A program that focuses on the history, society, politics, culture, and economics of the region encompassing Russia, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Eurasia, including the Balkan, Baltic, Caucasus, and Central Asian states that were republics of the former Soviet Union.